Research on environment effects on fertility ..8

Research on environment effects on fertility ..8

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Research on environment effects on fertility ..8
Posted 2017

Maternal smoking can also cause foetal IUGR, which, in turn, has numerous health consequences (see above). Smoking also has adverse effects on development of the reproductive system of foetuses of both sexes, independent of IUGR. Its main consequence in the male is to reduce future sperm counts. redReduced Sertoli cell number is the primary mechanism by which a permanent decrease in sperm count (and testis size) can be induced , and this is the probable explanation for the effect of maternal smoking. As the Sertoli cells orchestrate testicular development, effects on these cells may result in changes in other testicular cells, such as the Leydig cells and foetal germ cells. Leydig cells make the testosterone responsible for masculinization, and abnormal development of the foetal germ cells probably results in testicular germ cell cancer in adulthood . Testicular cancer is the most common cancer of young men and its incidence has increased progressively in Western countries in the last 50–60 years. Furthermore, there is evidence that the incidence of 'masculinization' disorders has also increased during the same period. Exposure to the active chemicals in tobacco smoke or from other sources, such as combustion of fossil fuels or dietary consumption, may have contributed to these changes (see below).
Women whose mothers smoked whilst they were in utero have an earlier menopause and consequently a shorter reproductive lifespan. These changes are determined by the number of oocytes in the ovaries, which is determined during foetal development . This suggests that maternal smoking results in a loss of oocytes in the foetal ovary. Studies in mice have identified the mechanism through which this occurs. Exposure of pregnant mice to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in tobacco smoke increases the number of oocytes undergoing apoptosis in female foetuses, resulting in fewer oocytes at birth and premature ovarian failure. This occurred as a result of PAHs binding to the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (Ah receptor) in the ovary, causing the accumulation of Bax protein in foetal germ cells, which then triggered cell death. The same cascade of events can be induced in human ovarian explants, and smoking by adult women may activate similar mechanisms, as it is associated with depleted oocyte reserves. Similar pathways may underlie the (postulated) changes in Sertoli cell numbers induced in the foetal testis by maternal smoking, as studies in rats exposed in utero to dioxin, which also binds to the Ah receptor, had reduced sperm counts in adulthood.

My advise
1....  Our environment plays major role on our health including fertility
2....  We are using cell phones which emit radiation and decreases fertility in male n female
3...   The persons working in chemical industries or residing near to chemical industries decreases their fertility
4....  Pollution also negatively effect on fertility
5....  If you are working in chemical industries tell your management to put small plants around the industries will to get fresh oxygen which nullify negative effect on your health.. 
6....  Put small plants in your house to get fresh oxygen
7...   Leave smoking, alcohol, ghutka .............habits
8...   As possible as stay away from cell phone as cell phone radiation will diminish your sperm or eggs quality

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