Mental retardation causes and kinds

Mental retardation causes and kinds





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Mental retardation causes and kinds
Posted in 2013

diagnosis of mental retardation is made if an individual has an intellectual functioning level well below average, as well as significant limitations in two or more adaptive skill areas. Intellectual functioning level is defined by standardized tests that measure the ability to reason in terms of mental age (intelligence quotient or IQ). Mental retardation is defined as an IQ score below 70–75. Adaptive skills is a term that refers to skills needed for daily life. Such skills include the ability to produce and understand language (communication); home-living skills; use of community resources; health, safety, leisure, self-care, and social skills; self-direction; functional academic skills (reading, writing, and arithmetic); and job-related skills.

Mental retardation varies in severity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition, text revision ( DSM-IV-TR ), which is the diagnostic standard for mental health care professionals in the United States, classifies four different degrees of mental retardation: mild, moderate, severe , and profound . These categories are based on the person's level of functioning.

Mild mental retardation

Approximately 85% of the mentally retarded population is in the mildly retarded category. Their IQ score ranges from 50–70, and they can often acquire academic skills up to about the sixth-grade level. They can become fairly self-sufficient and in some cases live independently, with community and social support.

Moderate mental retardation

About 10% of the mentally retarded population is considered moderately retarded. Moderately retarded persons have IQ scores ranging from 35–55. They can carry out work and self-care tasks with moderate supervision. They typically acquire communication skills in childhood and are able to live and function successfully within the community in such supervised environments as group homes .

Severe mental retardation

About 3–4% of the mentally retarded population is severely retarded. Severely retarded persons have IQ scores of 20–40. They may master very basic self-care skills and some communication skills. Many severely retarded individuals are able to live in a group home.

Profound mental retardation

Only 1–2% of the mentally retarded population is classified as profoundly retarded. Profoundly retarded individuals have IQ scores under 20–25. They may be able to develop basic self-care and communication skills with appropriate support and training. Their retardation is often caused by an accompanying neurological disorder. Profoundly retarded people need a high level of structure and supervision.
The American Association on Mental Retardation  (AAMR) has developed another widely accepted diagnostic classification system for mental retardation. The AAMR classification system focuses on the capabilities of the retarded individual rather than on his or her limitations. The categories describe the level of support required. They are: intermittent support; limited support; extensive support , and pervasive support . To some extent, the AAMR classification mirrors the DSM-IV-TR classification. Intermittent support, for example, is support that is needed only occasionally, perhaps during times of stress or crisis for the retarded person. It is the type of support typically required for most mildly retarded people. At the other end of the spectrum, pervasive support, or life-long, daily support for most adaptive areas, would be required for profoundly retarded persons. The AAMR classification system refers to the "below-average intellectual function" as an IQ of 70–75 or below.

Demographics

The prevalence of mental retardation in North America is a subject of heated debate. It is thought to be between 1%–3% depending upon the population, methods of assessment, and criteria of assessment that are used. Many people believe that the actual prevalence is probably closer to 1%, and that the 3% figure is based on misleading mortality rates; cases that are diagnosed in early infancy; and the instability of the diagnosis across the age span. If the 1% figure is accepted, however, it means that 2.5 million mentally retarded people reside in the United States. The three most common causes of mental retardation, accounting for about 30% of cases, are Down syndrome, fragile X, and fetal alcohol. Males are more likely than females to have MR in a 1.5:1 ratio.

Causes and symptoms

Low IQ scores and limitations in adaptive skills are the hallmarks of mental retardation. Aggression, self-injury, and mood disorders are sometimes associated with the disability. The severity of the symptoms and the age at which they first appear depend on the cause. Children who are mentally retarded reach developmental milestones significantly later than expected, if at all. If retardation is caused by chromosomal or other genetic disorders, it is often apparent from infancy. If retardation is caused by childhood illnesses or injuries, learning and adaptive skills that were once easy may suddenly become difficult or impossible to master.
In about 40% of cases, the cause of mental retardation cannot be found. Biological and environmental factors that can cause mental retardation include:
I always advise every couple to prevent child birth with mental retardation.  If you take proper care you can prevent it.


My advise
1...   The main cause of mental retardation is lack of Water and Oxygen upto 5th month in pregnancy.
2..    I advise every couple to follow healthy food to minimize your body consumption and sufficient oxygen to your unborn child's brain development.
3..    Your child brain needs sufficient water to activate all brain cells
4...   Avoid alcohol when you decided to give birth to Healthy child

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