Friday, August 26, 2011

How to keep your self HEALTHY

You will be healthy if you take balanced diet

Vegetables

Vegetables in daily meals are very important. They are naturally low in fat and also provide fiber. Vegetables help to keep balance between the fluids of the body. They provide vitamins A and C, and minerals, such as iron and magnesium and folate. Vegetables also provide carbohydrates for the energy our body needs. A small quantity of meat, eggs, milk or cheese mixed up with variety and combinations of vegetables provide the full range of amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals our body needs. For this we have no need to turn our kitchen into a laboratory, a little creativity is enough.

Fruit Group

Fruits are wonderful because they are low in fat and sodium and provide important vitamins that keep you feeling fine and looking good. Fruit and fruit juices provide important amounts of vitamins A and C and potassium. 2 to 4 daily servings of fruit play a big role in a good diet. Fruits also give you carbohydrates, the body's favorite kind of fuel. And above all fruit is full of fiber. Fruits are protective and regulatory in nature.

Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group

Milk products provide protein, vitamins, and minerals. Eating and drinking milk, yogurt, and cheese is the best way to get your daily calcium. And you'll have the power of protein to help you grow and build your body when you pick foods from this group. 2 to 3 servings of this group is enough for your body. 2 servings are enough for most people and 3 for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, teenagers and young adults to age 24. The most critical time to fill your bones with calcium is in your teen-age years. If you don't provide your body with sufficient calcium in your teens, your bones will be less dense throughout your life.

Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group

Meat, poultry, and fish supply protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc. The other foods in this group - dry beans, eggs, and nuts - are similar to meats in providing protein and most vitamins and minerals. Mutton, chicken, eggs and all edible birds, fish, crab, lobsters and shrimp are examples of Meat, Poultry and Seafood; they are major source of protein and also provide significant amount of fat. Groundnut, cashew nut, walnut, pistachio and badam examples of Nuts and Oilseeds are major source of fats and also provide protein. 2 to 3 servings from this group is sufficient for your body. This food group helps in body building and energy storing.

Fats, Oils, and Sweets

Groundnut oil, coconut oil, sesame oil, sunflower, safflower oil, butter and ghee. Fat can be visible fat, like oil. There is also invisible fat that cannot be seen but is consumed. For example, nuts and oil seeds also contain fat. Fat could be vegetable fat or animal fat. Our body needs fats for some things, but it's smart to avoid eating too much of it. This food group has more calories than nutrition so we should always use it sparingly. Sugary foods like candy and cookies are simple carbohydrates that can give you quick energy, they are usually loaded with calories and don't offer much in the way of nutrients.

Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group

The foods in this group should make up the biggest part of your total diet that is 6 to 11 servings in a day. These foods provide complex carbohydrates (starches), which are an important source of energy, especially in lowfat diets. They also provide vitamins, minerals, fiber and some iron. Bread, cereal, rice, and pasta are all great sources of carbohydrate, the nutrient that the body uses as its major energy source. The final quarter of your balanced vegetarian plate should be made up of whole grains. Choose whole grains over white, processed grains. Whole grains contain high fiber, so they are more filling and don't raise blood-sugar levels as much as other carbohydrates do. Also they have more disease-fighting phytochemicals.
Cereal and Millet: This group includes rice, wheat, ragi, bajra, jowar, corn and all products made from them like cereal flakes, puffed cereals, noodles, macaroni, bread, pizza bread and cakes. A major source of carbohydrates anPulse, Lentil and Legume: Some examples are black, red and green gram, bengal gram, cowpea, peas and rajma. They helps in body building , a major source of protein and also provides fat and carbohydrate.
Take balanced diet and be healthy
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Importance of Minerals

Importance of Minerals

A large number of minerals are present in the body. Some of these form part of body structural components and some others act as catalytic agents in many body reactions.

Calcium

Calcium is an element found in bones, shells and limestone, among other materials.

Calcium:

helps lower blood pressure and control heartbeat
helps regulate muscle contractions
plays a role in blood clotting
prevents fatal bleeding from breaks in the walls of blood vessels
maintains cell membranes
aids in the absorption of vitamin B12
activates enzymes such as lipase, the fat-splitting enzyme

Your bones furnish reserves of calcium to keep plasma constant at all times.

Phosphorous

Phosphorus is a mineral. It is a major component of bones and teeth and makes up part of DNA and RNA.

Phosphorus serves as the main regulator of energy metabolism in cells, helps the body absorb glucose and transport fatty acids, and is part of the buffer system that helps control the acid-base balance of the body.
Iron

Iron is part of haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying component of the blood. Iron-deficient people get tired easily because their bodies are starved for oxygen. Iron is also part of myoglobin, which helps muscle cells store oxygen. Without enough iron, ATP (the fuel the body runs on) cannot be properly synthesized. As a result, some iron-deficient people become fatigued even when their hemoglobin levels are normal. Although iron is part of the antioxidant enzyme catalase, iron is not generally considered an antioxidant, because too much iron can cause oxidative damage.

The most absorbable form of iron, called "haeme" iron, is found in oysters, meat, poultry, and fish. Non-haeme iron is also found in these foods, as well as in dried fruit, molasses, leafy green vegetables, wine, and most iron supplements. Acidic foods (such as tomato sauce) cooked in an iron pan can also be a source of dietary iron.

A common adult dose is 100 mg per day. It's not serious (such as normal menstrual blood loss or blood donation). Occasionally, however, iron deficiency signals ulcers or even colon cancer. Many premenopausal women become marginally iron deficient unless they supplement with iron. Even so, the 18 mg of iron present in most multiple-vitamin/mineral supplements is often adequate.

Sodium

Healthy American adults should eat no more than 2,300 milligrams of sodium a day. This is about 1 teaspoon of sodium chloride (salt).
How to reduce the sodium in diet?

Choose fresh, frozen or canned food items without added salts.
Select unsalted nuts or seeds, dried beans, peas and lentils.
Limit the amount of salty snacks you eat, like chips and pretzels.
Avoid adding salt and canned vegetables to homemade dishes.
Select unsalted, fat-free broths, bouillons or soups.
Select fat-free or low-fat milk, low-sodium, low-fat cheeses, as well as low-fat yogurt.
Specify what you want and how you want it prepared when dining out. Ask for your dish to be prepared without salt.
Use spices and herbs to enhance the taste of your food.

Potassium (K):

Potassium is a trace mineral essential for growth and good health.

Potassium in the human body helps to:

keep normal water balance between the cells and body fluids
maintain normal blood pressure
transmit nerve impulses
enable the contraction of muscles
ensure proper functioning of cellular enzymes
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Essentials of Minerals

Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. Minerals are needed by the body in small amounts to help it function properly and stay strong. Iron, calcium, potassium, and sodium are some of essential minerals. Humans need small amounts of about 14 minerals to maintain normal body function and good health.
The 14 minerals that have been shown by research to be essential to human health are: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Sulfur, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Fluoride, and Selenium. These 14 essential minerals are crucial to the growth and production of bones, teeth, hair, blood, nerves, skin, vitamins, enzymes and hormones; and the healthy functioning of nerve transmission, blood circulation, fluid regulation, cellular integrity, energy production and muscle contraction.
Minerals are neither animal nor vegetable; they are inorganic. Almost all foods contribute to a varied intake of essential minerals. Most minerals are easy to obtain in quantities required by the body. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
Types of Minerals
There are two types of minerals: Macro minerals and Trace minerals.
  1. Macro Minerals
    Macro means "large" in Greek are dietary minerals needed by the human body in high quantities. The macro mineral group is made up of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Sulfur.
  2. Micro / Trace Minerals
    Micro minerals, also known as trace elements are micronutrients that are chemical elements. A trace of something means that there is only a little of it. So, even though your body needs mineral each day in small amounts for good health. Scientists aren't even sure how much of these minerals you need each day. Trace minerals includes Iron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Fluoride, and Selenium.

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Wednesday, August 24, 2011

Growth Performance of Rats

Growth Performance of Rats Fed Raw and Cooked Diets Based on Different Sources of Proteins

Raw diet (body weight (g))
Cooked diet (body weight (g))

Initial
Week 1
Week 3
Initial
Week 1
Week 3
Pigeon-pea
80
78
80
80
99
120
Soybean
84
79
113
84
92
178
Winged bean
81
63
50
87
112
154
Potato
70
84
90
73
77
91
Winged bean tuber
71
65
Dead
71
78
92
Net Protein Utilization (NPU) of Casein Diets containing Starches from Different Sources
Source of starch
in the diet
Food
intake
Body weight
gain
NPU of
casein
9 per day
Maize
Raw 7.8 2.1 0.68
Cooked 8.2 1.9 0.72
Pigeon-pea
Raw 7.1 0.1 0.49
Cooked 8.1 1 .3 0.57
Green gram
Raw 7.8 1.6 0.66
Cooked 8.4 2 0 0.68
Potato
Raw 9.0 1.0 0.51
Cooked 8 8 2.0 0.60

Cooking losses of Riboflavin and Total B6

Cooking Losses of Riboflavin and Total B6 Content of Dhals

Riboflavin

Total B6

Dhals

mg per 100 g

Cooking loss (%)

mg per 100 g

Cooking loss (%)

Chick-pea

0.23

35.0

0.38

15.2

Pigeon-pea

0.25

17.8

0.32

13.2

Green gram

0.24

14.8

0.31

12.9

Black gram

0.25

13.2

0.24

12.8

Effect of Cooking on Ionizable Iron


Percentage of ionizable iron at pH 7.5

Type of process

Raw

Processed

Cooking

Rice

9.1

10.6

Pigeon-pea dhal

16.0

16.0

Baking

Phulka (whole wheat)

3.5

3.6

Phulka (refined flour)

8.2

9.2

Bread (whole wheat)

4.3

9.7

Bread (refined flour)

8.2

20.7

Fermentation

Idli

2.5

2.5

Wheat flour dough

6.0

6.9

Iionizable Iron in Germinated and Malted Food Grains

Ionizable Iron in Germinated and Malted Food Grains

Total iron in grain

Ionizable iron at pH 7.5

Food grain

(mg/100 g)

(%)

Chick-pea Raw

6.9 (4,9)a

2.7 (14.0)

Germinated 48 hours

6.9

5.6 (14 0)

Germinated 72 hours

6.9

6.9 (14.0)

Green gram Raw

5.0

5.7

Germinated

5.0

4.6

Wheat Raw

4.6

4.1

Germinated 48 hours

4.6

67

Germinated 42 hours

4.6

7.2

Bajra Raw

7.2

9.0

Malted

3.7

73.5

Ragi Raw

3.9

7.4

Malted

3.4

88.3

a. Seed coat removed.i

Loss of percentage by cooking

Effect of Soaking, Germination, and Cooking: Percentage Loss of Polyphenols of Four Indian Pulses

Percentage loss of tannin on:

Tannin

Soaking

Germination

Cooking

(mg/100 g)

24 hours

24-28 hours

Raw

Germinated

Chick-pea

179 + 21

50

3-8

70

75

Pigeon-pea

996 + 93

50

3-10

60

75

Green gram

612 + 53

25

20-25

70

76

Black gram

861 + 92

25

10-25

70

77